Olive tree Moraiolo
Olea europaea L.
RISK OF EROSION Low
DESCRIPTION Variety grown in the entire regional olive-growing area, where it represents the most widespread traditional cultivar. It represents at least 90% of the historical olive-growing heritage of the olive belt between Assisi and Spoleto, up to the Ternana basin.
HISTORICAL NOTES Most of the trees of the Moraiolo variety represent re-growths of the frosts of 1956 and 1985, from which it is difficult to estimate the age. However, numerous trees with original trunks have been preserved especially in the southern part and at a lower risk from cold of Umbria. Among these, many were reported in a prospecting work carried out by APROL (Scatolini et al., 2005), while in San Vittore, Municipality of Otricoli (Terni), a “Moraiolo” tree (genetically identified through molecular analysis) of considerable size which, from the examination of the age of the residual wood established with the analysis at 14C and from the measurement of the size of the trunk, was found to be about 680 years old (± 62 years) , thus testifying the very long presence of this variety in loco (Pannelli et al., 2010).
TYPICAL PRODUCTION AREA The “Moraiolo”, although widespread also in the neighboring regions of Tuscany (with the same name), Marche and Lazio (with the synonym Carboncella), unquestionably represents the variety of olive trees that characterize Umbrian olive growing, in consideration of the peculiar characteristics of oil and the fact that it is the only one able to survive and produce abundantly along the stony and arid slopes of Subasio, Monte Brunette and Monti Martani.
SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OIL DURING MATURATION
Maturation effect: the sensory profiles of the oils appear unbalanced due to the prevalence of bitter, pungent and hay sensations.
Seasonality effect: the oils produced by the variety were influenced by the seasonal trend.
Texts taken from “Regional register of indigenous genetic resources of the Umbria Region”.